Student URLs for April 18, 2016

URLs for April 18, 2016.\

Sarah Kleinknecht


Two forms of radiosurgery for brain metastases are equally effective
Posted: 23 Feb 2016 10:25 AM PST
While two advanced radiosurgery approaches -- Gamma Knife and RapidArc® -- offer different strengths, they are equally effective at eradicating cancer in the brain, report researchers.

New vulnerability revealed in blood cancer development
Posted: 04 Mar 2016 09:29 AM PST
A protein that is key to the development of blood cancers caused by a common genetic error has been identified by researchers. The discovery is a missing piece in the puzzle of understanding how high levels of a protein called MYC drive cancer development, and may to lead to future strategies for early treatment or possibly even prevention of these cancers.

Stopping tumor cells killing surrounding tissue may provide clue to fighting cancer
Posted: 04 Feb 2016 09:20 AM PST
Tumors kill off surrounding cells to make room to grow, according to new research. Although the study was carried out using fruit flies, its findings suggest that drugs to prevent, rather than encourage, cell death might be effective at fighting cancer -- contrary to how many of the current chemotherapy drugs work.


 Leah Gregory

Thyroid cancer incidence may be leveling off in US, research indicates

HealthDay (4/14, Reinberg) reports that research published online in JAMA Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery indicates “fewer thyroid cancers are diagnosed in the United States now than in the recent past, perhaps signaling a change in physician practices.”
        Medscape (4/14, Brooks) reports that investigators “analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States from 1983 to 2012 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry of the National Cancer Institute.” The researchers “found that from 1988 to 1998, the incidence of thyroid cancer rose by 3% annually.” The data also indicated that “from 1998 to 2009, the trend accelerated to 6.7%, but then stabilized to 1.75% from 2010 to 2012.”
        Meanwhile, the New York Times (4/14, A3, Kolata, Subscription Publication) reports that “an international panel of doctors has decided that a type of tumor that was classified as a cancer is not a cancer at all.” The panel has “renamed” it, now calling it a “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features,” or NIFTP, rather than an “encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.” The panel’s “conclusion, and the data that led to it, was” published in JAMA Oncology.

FDA accepts application to expand nivolumab indication to include Hodgkin lymphoma

The Wall Street Journal (4/14, Hufford, Subscription Publication) reports that the Food and Drug Administration has accepted Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.’s application to expand the indication for Opdivo (nivolumab) to include the treatment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who have tried other treatment options. The agency also granted the application priority review.

Researchers identify link between hepatitis C infection and head and neck cancers

The Houston Chronicle (4/13, Hawryluk, Subscription Publication) reports that researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center “have identified for the first time a link between hepatitis C infection and head and neck cancers, according to a study” published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
       HealthDay (4/13, Preidt) reports that the researchers “analyzed data from more than 34,500 patients tested at the medical center.” The investigators “found that those with hepatitis C seemed to have more than twice the risk for cancers in the mouth and throat and a nearly fivefold higher risk for larynx cancers than those without hepatitis C.” Additionally, the investigators “found that head and neck cancer patients with hepatitis C were more likely to have human papillomavirus.”


Katherine Crawford

HPV infections falling among young women, study shows
USA Today (2/22, Painter) reports a study published in Pediatrics suggests that “thanks to a vaccination program that began a decade ago, fewer U.S. women are entering adulthood infected with” HPV. This study “is the first to show falling levels of dangerous strains of the” virus “among women in their early 20s.”
        The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (2/22, Sostek) reports that the study found “girls between 14 and 19 years old saw infection rates on the four types of HPV covered by the Gardasil vaccine fall 64 percent from the rate prior to the vaccine’s introduction — from 11.5 percent in 2003-2006 to 4.3 percent between 2009 and 2012.” Meanwhile, “in women ages 20 to 24, prevalence of the infection declined 34 percent in those years, from 18.5 percent to 12.1 percent.”

New report finds 'surprising gaps' in knowledge of ovarian cancers
Posted: 02 Mar 2016 09:12 AM PST
Ovarian cancer should not be categorized as a single disease, but rather as a constellation of different cancers involving the ovary, yet questions remain on how and where various ovarian cancers arise, says a new congressionally mandated report.
Intended Care Seeking for Ovarian Cancer Symptoms Among U.S. Women
To investigate U.S. women's intended care seeking for symptoms associated with ovarian cancer, data from the 2012 HealthStyles Fall survey of U.S. adults were examined.  Analyses were limited to women with no history of gynecologic cancer (N=1726). Logistic regression models for intended care seeking within 2 weeks of symptom onset were developed.  A minority of women recognized that unexplained pelvic or abdominal pain (29.9%), unexplained bloating (18.1%), and feeling full after eating a small amount of food (10.1%) can indicate ovarian cancer, and 31.1% mistakenly believed that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test screens for the disease.


Lauren Clark
How a bad night's sleep might worsen cancer development
Recent studies have indicated that patients with sleep apnea may be associated with worse cancer outcomes. Now a new animal study, presented at the European Association of Urology Congress in Munich, uncovers a possible mechanism which may underlie this link.
Cancer Death Does Not Come Sooner When it Comes at Home
Despite possible concerns about its quality, receiving palliative care and dying at home did not have a detrimental effect on the survival of end-stage cancer patients, according to results of a Japanese multicenter study.
Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement
The USPSTF reviewed 5 additional studies of aspirin for the primary prevention of CVD and several additional analyses of CRC follow-up data. The USPSTF also relied on commissioned systematic reviews of all-cause mortality and total cancer incidence and mortality and a comprehensive review of harms. The USPSTF then used a microsimulation model to systematically estimate the balance of benefits and harms. The USPSTF recommends initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD and CRC in adults aged 50 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years.


Sadia Shah

Consumers of fast-food may have more industrial chemicals in their bodies

Bloomberg News (4/13, Tozzi) reports a new analysis of data from federal nutrition surveys revealed that “people who reported eating fast food in the last 24 hours had elevated levels of some industrial chemicals in their bodies.” The study “is the first broad look at how fast food may expose the public to” phthalates. Scientists have increasingly focused on the effects of such chemicals on health and development, “particularly for pregnant women and children.” 

USPSTF releases recommendation on aspirin use for primary prevention of CV disease and colorectal cancer
The Washington Post reports in “To Your Health” that “taking a daily dose of aspirin can help prevent both heart disease and colorectal cancer in adults ages 50 to 69 who are at an increased risk for cardiovascular problems...said” the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), which released its “final recommendation” on the topic yesterday.

FDA moves to ban cancer-causing pork antibiotic

NBC News reported online that the FDA moved Friday to ban the antibiotic carbadox, which is used to fatten pigs for slaughter, saying its manufacturer, New Jersey-based Phibro Animal Health, hasn’t established that it can’t cause cancer in humans. “Continued approval of carbadox could expose consumers to substances of carcinogenic concern,” the FDA said in a statement, NBC says, noting that studies have shown that the antibiotic can cause cancer in rats and is restricted in Canada, Australia, and much of Europe. 


Danial Njoku

'Liquid Biopsy' Helps Doctors Pick Best Cancer Drug More Easily

A fast blood test can help guide doctors to the best drugs for treating lung cancer patients.


Cancer Death Does Not Come Sooner When it Comes at Home

Despite possible concerns about its quality, receiving palliative care and dying at home did not have a detrimental effect on the survival of end-stage cancer patients, according to results of a Japanese multicenter study.


Why breast cancer survivors should avoid late-night eating

A new study found that fasting less than 13 hours between dinner and breakfast was associated with an increased risk of a breast cancer recurrence in women with an early stage of the disease.

Sara Sigur


Chemical found in babies' dummies and condoms 'probably causes cancer'
A chemical that is found in condoms and babies' dummies "probably causes cancer", according to world health chiefs, who ranked it alongside red meat as a possible carcinogen.


T1D Linked to Heightened Risk of Some Cancers, Finds Large Study
Type 1 diabetes was linked to a higher risk of several cancers but a reduced risk of others in a new study.


Waste in Cancer Drugs Costs $3 Billion a Year, a Study Says
The federal Medicare program and private health insurers waste nearly $3 billion every year buying cancer medicines that are thrown out because many drug makers distribute the drugs only in vials that hold too much for most patients, a group of cancer researchers has found.